开始改造我们之前搭建的基础集群,加上安全机制。

准备工作

1. 停止master节点的所有服务

查看已有的service

kubectl get services

删除service(例如有一个叫xxx的service)

kubectl delete service xxx

查看已有的deployments

kubectl get deploy

删除deployments

kubectl delete deploy xxx

停止master的服务

service kube-calico stop
service kube-scheduler stop
service kube-controller-manager stop
service kube-apiserver stop
service etcd stop && rm -fr /var/lib/etcd/*

2. 停止worker节点的所有服务

service kubelet stop 
rm -fr /var/lib/kubelet/*
service kube-proxy stop 
rm -fr /var/lib/kube-proxy/*
service kube-calico stop

3. 安装需要的工具

在所有节点上安装cfssl:

CFSSL是CloudFlare开源的一款PKI/TLS工具。 CFSSL 包含一个命令行工具 和一个用于 签名,验证并且捆绑TLS证书的 HTTP API 服务。 用Go写的。具体相关信息自行google。 下载

wget -q --show-progress --https-only --timestamping \
  https://pkg.cfssl.org/R1.2/cfssl_linux-amd64 \
  https://pkg.cfssl.org/R1.2/cfssljson_linux-amd64

修改权限

chmod +x cfssl_linux-amd64 cfssljson_linux-amd64

放到可执行目录

mv cfssl_linux-amd64 /usr/local/bin/cfssl
mv cfssljson_linux-amd64 /usr/local/bin/cfssljson  

在worker节点上安装conntrack

apt install conntrack

4.在master上生成根证书

mkdir -p /etc/kubernetes/ca
cd /etc/kubernetes/ca

编辑ca-config.json文件,内容如下:

{
  "signing": {
    "default": {
      "expiry": "87600h"
    },
    "profiles": {
      "kubernetes": {
        "usages": [
            "signing",
            "key encipherment",
            "server auth",
            "client auth"
        ],
        "expiry": "87600h"
      }
    }
  }
}

编辑ca-csr.json文件,内容如下:

{
  "CN": "kubernetes",
  "key": {
    "algo": "rsa",
    "size": 2048
  },
  "names": [
    {
      "C": "CN",
      "ST": "Beijing",
      "L": "XS",
      "O": "k8s",
      "OU": "System"
    }
  ]
}

执行生成证书的命令:

cfssl gencert -initca ca-csr.json | cfssljson -bare ca

OK。

master节点设置

1. etcd设置

设置etcd的证书:

mkdir -p /etc/kubernetes/ca/etcd
cd /etc/kubernetes/ca/etcd 

编辑etcd-csr.json文件,内容如下:

{
  "CN": "etcd",
  "hosts": [
    "127.0.0.1",
    "192.168.32.131"
  ],
  "key": {
    "algo": "rsa",
    "size": 2048
  },
  "names": [
    {
      "C": "CN",
      "ST": "Beijing",
      "L": "XS",
      "O": "k8s",
      "OU": "System"
    }
  ]
}

执行签发证书的命令:

cfssl gencert \
        -ca=/etc/kubernetes/ca/ca.pem \
        -ca-key=/etc/kubernetes/ca/ca-key.pem \
        -config=/etc/kubernetes/ca/ca-config.json \
        -profile=kubernetes etcd-csr.json | cfssljson -bare etcd

编辑/lib/systemd/system/etcd.service,内容如下:

[Unit]
Description=Etcd Server
After=network.target
After=network-online.target
Wants=network-online.target
Documentation=https://github.com/coreos

[Service]
Type=notify
WorkingDirectory=/var/lib/etcd/
ExecStart=/home/anakin/bin/etcd \
  --name=192.168.32.131 \
  --listen-client-urls=https://192.168.32.131:2379,http://127.0.0.1:2379 \
  --advertise-client-urls=https://192.168.32.131:2379 \
  --data-dir=/var/lib/etcd \
  --listen-peer-urls=https://192.168.32.131:2380 \
  --initial-advertise-peer-urls=https://192.168.32.131:2380 \
  --cert-file=/etc/kubernetes/ca/etcd/etcd.pem \
  --key-file=/etc/kubernetes/ca/etcd/etcd-key.pem \
  --peer-cert-file=/etc/kubernetes/ca/etcd/etcd.pem \
  --peer-key-file=/etc/kubernetes/ca/etcd/etcd-key.pem \
  --trusted-ca-file=/etc/kubernetes/ca/ca.pem \
  --peer-trusted-ca-file=/etc/kubernetes/ca/ca.pem
Restart=on-failure
RestartSec=5
LimitNOFILE=65536

[Install]
WantedBy=multi-user.target

然后启动服务:

systemctl daemon-reload
service etcd start

2. apiserver设置
创建一个存放证书的目录:

mkdir -p /etc/kubernetes/ca/kubernetes
cd /etc/kubernetes/ca/kubernetes/

编辑kubernetes-csr.json文件,内容如下:

{
  "CN": "kubernetes",
  "hosts": [
    "127.0.0.1",
    "192.168.32.131",
    "10.68.0.1",
    "kubernetes",
    "kubernetes.default",
    "kubernetes.default.svc",
    "kubernetes.default.svc.cluster",
    "kubernetes.default.svc.cluster.local"
  ],
  "key": {
    "algo": "rsa",
    "size": 2048
  },
  "names": [
    {
      "C": "CN",
      "ST": "Beijing",
      "L": "XS",
      "O": "k8s",
      "OU": "System"
    }
  ]
}

签发证书:

cfssl gencert \
        -ca=/etc/kubernetes/ca/ca.pem \
        -ca-key=/etc/kubernetes/ca/ca-key.pem \
        -config=/etc/kubernetes/ca/ca-config.json \
        -profile=kubernetes kubernetes-csr.json | cfssljson -bare kubernetes 

生成一个token文件:

head -c 16 /dev/urandom | od -An -t x | tr -d ' '
c81fb8ce5502f19d510d159ff8a1cf12

把这个token存入文件:

echo "c81fb8ce5502f19d510d159ff8a1cf12,kubelet-bootstrap,10001,\"system:kubelet-bootstrap\"" > /etc/kubernetes/ca/kubernetes/token.csv

编辑/lib/systemd/system/kube-apiserver.service,内容如下:

[Unit]
Description=Kubernetes API Server
Documentation=https://github.com/GoogleCloudPlatform/kubernetes
After=network.target
[Service]
ExecStart=/home/anakin/bin/kube-apiserver \
  --admission-control=NamespaceLifecycle,LimitRanger,ServiceAccount,DefaultStorageClass,ResourceQuota,NodeRestriction \
  --insecure-bind-address=127.0.0.1 \
  --kubelet-https=true \
  --bind-address=192.168.32.131 \
  --authorization-mode=Node,RBAC \
  --runtime-config=rbac.authorization.k8s.io/v1 \
  --enable-bootstrap-token-auth \
  --token-auth-file=/etc/kubernetes/ca/kubernetes/token.csv \
  --tls-cert-file=/etc/kubernetes/ca/kubernetes/kubernetes.pem \
  --tls-private-key-file=/etc/kubernetes/ca/kubernetes/kubernetes-key.pem \
  --client-ca-file=/etc/kubernetes/ca/ca.pem \
  --service-account-key-file=/etc/kubernetes/ca/ca-key.pem \
  --etcd-cafile=/etc/kubernetes/ca/ca.pem \
  --etcd-certfile=/etc/kubernetes/ca/kubernetes/kubernetes.pem \
  --etcd-keyfile=/etc/kubernetes/ca/kubernetes/kubernetes-key.pem \
  --service-cluster-ip-range=10.68.0.0/16 \
  --service-node-port-range=20000-40000 \
  --etcd-servers=https://192.168.32.131:2379 \
  --enable-swagger-ui=true \
  --allow-privileged=true \
  --audit-log-maxage=30 \
  --audit-log-maxbackup=3 \
  --audit-log-maxsize=100 \
  --audit-log-path=/var/lib/audit.log \
  --event-ttl=1h \
  --v=2
Restart=on-failure
RestartSec=5
Type=notify
LimitNOFILE=65536
[Install]
WantedBy=multi-user.target

然后启动服务:

systemctl daemon-reload
service kube-apiserver start

3. controller-manager设置
编辑/lib/systemd/system/kube-controller-manager.service文件,内容如下:

[Unit]
Description=Kubernetes Controller Manager
Documentation=https://github.com/GoogleCloudPlatform/kubernetes
[Service]
ExecStart=/home/anakin/bin/kube-controller-manager \
  --address=127.0.0.1 \
  --master=http://127.0.0.1:8080 \
  --allocate-node-cidrs=true \
  --service-cluster-ip-range=10.68.0.0/16 \
  --cluster-cidr=172.20.0.0/16 \
  --cluster-name=kubernetes \
  --leader-elect=true \
  --cluster-signing-cert-file=/etc/kubernetes/ca/ca.pem \
  --cluster-signing-key-file=/etc/kubernetes/ca/ca-key.pem \
  --service-account-private-key-file=/etc/kubernetes/ca/ca-key.pem \
  --root-ca-file=/etc/kubernetes/ca/ca.pem \
  --v=2
Restart=on-failure
RestartSec=5
[Install]
WantedBy=multi-user.target

启动服务

systemctl daemon-reload
service kube-controller-manager start

4. scheduler设置
scheduler不需要重新设置,直接启动就ok了。

5. kubectl设置
先创建一个叫做admin的系统管理员:

mkdir -p /etc/kubernetes/ca/admin
cd /etc/kubernetes/ca/admin/

编辑admin-csr.json文件,内容如下:

{
  "CN": "admin",
  "hosts": [],
  "key": {
    "algo": "rsa",
    "size": 2048
  },
  "names": [
    {
      "C": "CN",
      "ST": "Beijing",
      "L": "XS",
      "O": "system:masters",
      "OU": "System"
    }
  ]
}

签发证书:

cfssl gencert \
        -ca=/etc/kubernetes/ca/ca.pem \
        -ca-key=/etc/kubernetes/ca/ca-key.pem \
        -config=/etc/kubernetes/ca/ca-config.json \
        -profile=kubernetes admin-csr.json | cfssljson -bare admin

然后开始设置kubectl

kubectl config set-cluster kubernetes \
        --certificate-authority=/etc/kubernetes/ca/ca.pem \
        --embed-certs=true \
        --server=https://192.168.32.131:6443

kubectl config set-credentials admin \
        --client-certificate=/etc/kubernetes/ca/admin/admin.pem \
        --embed-certs=true \
        --client-key=/etc/kubernetes/ca/admin/admin-key.pem

kubectl config set-context kubernetes \
        --cluster=kubernetes --user=admin
    
kubectl config use-context kubernetes

6. calico设置
生成证书:

mkdir -p /etc/kubernetes/ca/calico
cd /etc/kubernetes/ca/calico/

编辑calico-csr.json文件,内容如下:

{
  "CN": "calico",
  "hosts": [],
  "key": {
    "algo": "rsa",
    "size": 2048
  },
  "names": [
    {
      "C": "CN",
      "ST": "Beijing",
      "L": "XS",
      "O": "k8s",
      "OU": "System"
    }
  ]
}

签发证书:

cfssl gencert \
        -ca=/etc/kubernetes/ca/ca.pem \
        -ca-key=/etc/kubernetes/ca/ca-key.pem \
        -config=/etc/kubernetes/ca/ca-config.json \
        -profile=kubernetes calico-csr.json | cfssljson -bare calico

编辑/lib/systemd/system/kube-calico.service文件,内容如下:

[Unit]
Description=calico node
After=docker.service
Requires=docker.service

[Service]
User=root
PermissionsStartOnly=true
ExecStart=/usr/bin/docker run --net=host --privileged --name=calico-node \
  -e NODENAME="calico1" \
  -e ETCD_ENDPOINTS=https://192.168.32.131:2379 \
  -e ETCD_CA_CERT_FILE=/etc/kubernetes/ca/ca.pem \
  -e ETCD_CERT_FILE=/etc/kubernetes/ca/calico/calico.pem \
  -e ETCD_KEY_FILE=/etc/kubernetes/ca/calico/calico-key.pem \
  -e CALICO_LIBNETWORK_ENABLED=true \
  -e CALICO_NETWORKING_BACKEND=bird \
  -e CALICO_DISABLE_FILE_LOGGING=true \
  -e CALICO_IPV4POOL_CIDR=172.20.0.0/16 \
  -e CALICO_IPV4POOL_IPIP=off \
  -e FELIX_DEFAULTENDPOINTTOHOSTACTION=ACCEPT \
  -e FELIX_IPV6SUPPORT=false \
  -e FELIX_LOGSEVERITYSCREEN=info \
  -e FELIX_IPINIPMTU=1440 \
  -e FELIX_HEALTHENABLED=true \
  -e IP=192.168.32.131 \
  -v /etc/kubernetes/ca:/etc/kubernetes/ca \
  -v /var/run/calico:/var/run/calico \
  -v /lib/modules:/lib/modules \
  -v /run/docker/plugins:/run/docker/plugins \
  -v /var/run/docker.sock:/var/run/docker.sock \
  -v /var/log/calico:/var/log/calico \
  calico/node:release-v2.6
ExecStop=/usr/bin/docker rm -f calico-node
Restart=always
RestartSec=10

[Install]
WantedBy=multi-user.target

启动服务:

systemctl daemon-reload
service kube-calico start

还有一步,就是把/etc/kubernetes/ca/calico目录下的这几个证书拷贝到worker节点对应的位置上去备用

7. 设置kubelet的角色绑定

kubectl -n kube-system get clusterrole
kubectl create clusterrolebinding kubelet-bootstrap \
         --clusterrole=system:node-bootstrapper --user=kubelet-bootstrap

worker节点设置

1. calico设置
编辑/lib/systemd/system/kube-calico.service文件,参考master节点的内容,只需要修改一下NODENAME就可以了,然后启动服务

2. kubelet设置
设置kubelet参数:

kubectl config set-cluster kubernetes \
        --certificate-authority=/etc/kubernetes/ca/ca.pem \
        --embed-certs=true \
        --server=https://192.168.32.131:6443 \
        --kubeconfig=bootstrap.kubeconfig

kubectl config set-credentials kubelet-bootstrap \
        --token=c81fb8ce5502f19d510d159ff8a1cf12\
        --kubeconfig=bootstrap.kubeconfig

kubectl config set-context default \
        --cluster=kubernetes \
        --user=kubelet-bootstrap \
        --kubeconfig=bootstrap.kubeconfig

kubectl config use-context default --kubeconfig=bootstrap.kubeconfig

mv bootstrap.kubeconfig /etc/kubernetes/

设置cni:

cd /etc/cni/net.d/

编辑10-calico.conf文件,内容如下:

{
    "name": "calico-k8s-network",
    "cniVersion": "0.1.0",
    "type": "calico",
    "etcd_endpoints": "https://192.168.32.131:2379",
    "etcd_key_file": "/etc/kubernetes/ca/calico/calico-key.pem",
    "etcd_cert_file": "/etc/kubernetes/ca/calico/calico.pem",
    "etcd_ca_cert_file": "/etc/kubernetes/ca/ca.pem",
    "log_level": "info",
    "ipam": {
        "type": "calico-ipam"
    },
    "kubernetes": {
        "kubeconfig": "/etc/kubernetes/kubelet.kubeconfig"
    }
}

编辑/lib/systemd/system/kubelet.service文件,内容如下:

[Unit]
Description=Kubernetes Kubelet
Documentation=https://github.com/GoogleCloudPlatform/kubernetes
After=docker.service
Requires=docker.service

[Service]
WorkingDirectory=/var/lib/kubelet
ExecStart=/home/anakin/bin/kubelet \
  --address=192.168.32.132 \
  --hostname-override=192.168.32.132 \
  --pod-infra-container-image=registry.cn-hangzhou.aliyuncs.com/imooc/pause-amd64:3.0 \
  --kubeconfig=/etc/kubernetes/kubelet.kubeconfig \
  --experimental-bootstrap-kubeconfig=/etc/kubernetes/bootstrap.kubeconfig \
  --cert-dir=/etc/kubernetes/ca \
  --hairpin-mode hairpin-veth \
  --network-plugin=cni \
  --cni-conf-dir=/etc/cni/net.d \
  --cni-bin-dir=/home/anakin/bin \
  --cluster-dns=10.68.0.2 \
  --cluster-domain=cluster.local. \
  --allow-privileged=true \
  --fail-swap-on=false \
  --logtostderr=true \
  --v=2
#kubelet cAdvisor 默认在所有接口监听 4194 端口的请求, 以下iptables限制内网访问
ExecStartPost=/sbin/iptables -A INPUT -s 10.0.0.0/8 -p tcp --dport 4194 -j ACCEPT
ExecStartPost=/sbin/iptables -A INPUT -s 172.16.0.0/12 -p tcp --dport 4194 -j ACCEPT
ExecStartPost=/sbin/iptables -A INPUT -s 192.168.0.0/16 -p tcp --dport 4194 -j ACCEPT
ExecStartPost=/sbin/iptables -A INPUT -p tcp --dport 4194 -j DROP
Restart=on-failure
RestartSec=5

[Install]
WantedBy=multi-user.target

启动服务:

systemctl daemon-reload
service kubelet start

启动之后,需要去master节点进行授权操作:

kubectl get csr|grep 'Pending' | awk '{print $1}'| xargs kubectl certificate approve

3. kube-proxy设置

准备证书:

mkdir -p /etc/kubernetes/ca/kube-proxy
cd /etc/kubernetes/ca/kube-proxy

编辑kube-proxy-csr.json文件,内容如下:

{
  "CN": "system:kube-proxy",
  "hosts": [],
  "key": {
    "algo": "rsa",
    "size": 2048
  },
  "names": [
    {
      "C": "CN",
      "ST": "Beijing",
      "L": "XS",
      "O": "k8s",
      "OU": "System"
    }
  ]
}

签发证书:

cfssl gencert \
        -ca=/etc/kubernetes/ca/ca.pem \
        -ca-key=/etc/kubernetes/ca/ca-key.pem \
        -config=/etc/kubernetes/ca/ca-config.json \
        -profile=kubernetes kube-proxy-csr.json | cfssljson -bare kube-proxy

生成各种配置文件:

kubectl config set-cluster kubernetes \
        --certificate-authority=/etc/kubernetes/ca/ca.pem \
        --embed-certs=true \
        --server=https://192.168.32.131:6443 \
        --kubeconfig=kube-proxy.kubeconfig

kubectl config set-credentials kube-proxy \
        --client-certificate=/etc/kubernetes/ca/kube-proxy/kube-proxy.pem \
        --client-key=/etc/kubernetes/ca/kube-proxy/kube-proxy-key.pem \
        --embed-certs=true \
        --kubeconfig=kube-proxy.kubeconfig

kubectl config set-context default \
        --cluster=kubernetes \
        --user=kube-proxy \
        --kubeconfig=kube-proxy.kubeconfig

kubectl config use-context default --kubeconfig=kube-proxy.kubeconfig

mv kube-proxy.kubeconfig /etc/kubernetes/kube-proxy.kubeconfig

编辑/lib/systemd/system/kube-proxy.service文件,内容如下:

[Unit]
Description=Kubernetes Kube-Proxy Server
Documentation=https://github.com/GoogleCloudPlatform/kubernetes
After=network.target
[Service]
WorkingDirectory=/var/lib/kube-proxy
ExecStart=/home/anakin/bin/kube-proxy \
  --bind-address=192.168.32.132 \
  --hostname-override=192.168.32.132 \
  --kubeconfig=/etc/kubernetes/kube-proxy.kubeconfig \
  --logtostderr=true \
  --v=2
Restart=on-failure
RestartSec=5
LimitNOFILE=65536

[Install]
WantedBy=multi-user.target

启动服务:

systemctl daemon-reload
service kube-proxy start

总结

中间可能会遇到的问题:

  1. calico

calico是以docker的方式运行的,有时候重启服务的时候,之前的container还没杀死,日志里会报错误:

Error response from daemon: Conflict. The container name "/aaa" is already in use by conta
iner "xxx".

这时候只要删除这个container就可以了:

docker rm -f xxx

如果是报node的名字被占用的错误,到master节点删除就ok了:

calicoctl delete node
  1. 一些常用的命令:

查看集群节点:

kubectl get nodes

查看calico节点:

calicoctl node status

每个服务启动之后,都可以用下面的命令查看服务的日志信息:

journalctl -f -u xxx

ok。写的好累。